參與式查證體系

「參與式查證體系」(Participatory Guarantee System,簡稱PGS)是由國際有機運動聯盟(IFOAM)所建構的一個有別於傳統認證體系的策略,它的主要理念在於為尋求有機生產者的消費者提供可靠的認證,和第三方驗證系統有共同的目標,不同的是在方法,顧名思義,在查證過程中不僅是鼓勵,並要求農民和消費者的直接參與。

在參與式查證體系最有可能服務的小農戶、社區與直接市場的背景下,這種參與完全是實事求是的。利益相關者的活躍參與導致更大的授權,也承擔更多的責任。

因此,參與式查證體系會優先考慮對生產者及消費者的知識和能力的建設。一個重要的因素,這種直接參與讓參與式查證體系方案減少了繁瑣的文書工作和備存紀錄需求,因為參與式查證體系方案必需包含小農戶,並促使小農戶進入有機的生產體系。

現有的驗證方案(ICS)農民必須證明他們是在遵守驗證的想法為開始。而參與式查證體系完全相反,以誠信為本的政策,也就是在互相信任的基礎上開始的。它是建立在一個非常透明和公開性的原則下,儘量減少層次剝削和行政干預的環境。

依據IFOAM的定義,參與式查證體系支持原有有機農業耕作的共同理想。參與式查證體系方案是要求從根本生態接近農業,不使用化學合成農藥,肥料或轉基因的生物,並以社會正義積極支援農民和工人的經濟可持續性。

參與式查證體系方案集中的主要地區和市場鼓勵了社區建設、環境保護並支持了當地經濟的總體發展。

參與式查證體系簡介(中文字幕)

參與式查證體系完整介紹(英文字幕)

參與式查證體系的運作原則(Key Elements)包括有:

一、共同願景

參與式查證體系之基礎,在於參與者對共同願景的認同。生產者與消費者都有一個核心的指導原則。雖然實際參與的程度可能有所不同,但參與式查證體系之所以能穩定發展,是來自於參與者積極的態度、以及為已為人的精神。

  1. Shared Vision

A fundamental strength of the Participatory Guarantee System lies in the conscious shared vision that farmers and consumers have in the core principles guiding the program. While PGS programs may vary in the level of actual participation, they thrive because of the active awareness of why, how, and not least of all WHO is being served.

 

二、持續參與

參與式查證是一種方法。它的前提是,對於產品感興趣的生產者與消費者們都能持續積極參與其中。由所有的關係人,包括生產者、通路與消費者,一起建構生產的原則和規則,生產品質的可信度便是關係人共同持續參與的成果。

  1. Participatory

Participatory certification is based on a methodology presupposing intense involvement by those interested in the production and consumption of these products. Principles and rules for organic production are conceived and applied with the contribution of all stakeholders – producers, consultants and consumers. The credibility of the production quality is a consequence of participation.

 

三、公開透明(依靠可追溯系統)

所有關係人,雖不一定要掌握每一個細節,但必須關注查證機制,尤其那些無法取得查證的原因,遵循有益各方的書面文件進行。保密但不影響透明原則,劃清隱私機密與透明公開資訊間的分界,以透明度來保證提供產品資訊。

  1. Transparency

All stakeholders, including farmers, must be aware of exactly how the guarantee mechanism generally works, the process and how decisions are made. This does not mean that every detail is known by everyone but rather a basic understanding of how the system functions. People should be aware about the criteria of how decision on certification is made, especially the reason why some farm cannot be certified. This implies that there must be some written documents available about the PGS and the documents are made available to all interested parties. Privacy and commercially sensitive information of producers gathered during the operation of PGS must be treated with confidentiality. But such confidentiality should not be used to compromise the transparency principle. This may seem in conflict with transparency but a line must be drawn between privacy and commercially sensitive information, on the one hand, and access to information for the purpose of transparency.

 

四、信譽—誠信為本的政策

參與式查證體系的提倡者應堅持信任生產者和查證制度的理念。有能力透過不同的社會和文化管理機制,提供監督機制以確保生產者誠信。因此,在文化不同的定量和定性監理機制,可用於取得和鼓勵誠信,都是完善保證過程所必要的。

  1. Trust – “integrity based approach”

The advocates of PGS hold to the idea that farmers can be trusted and the organic certification system should be an expression of this trust. It should reflect a community’s capacity to demonstrate this trust through the application of their different social and cultural control mechanisms, providing the necessary oversight to ensure the organic integrity of their organic farmers. Thus, a variety of culturally specific (local) quantitative and qualitative mechanisms for demonstrating and measuring organic integrity are recognized and celebrated. These are integral to the certification process.

 

五、學習過程

參與式查證體系不僅提供證書,也支援農民在發展永續生計時的工具和機制,有利於所有參與者共同架構知識學習平台。各方的有效參與,不僅能透過共同制訂和核查各項原則和規則,提高公信力。更重要的是,培養長期學習的能力。

  1. Learning Process

The intent of most PGS has been to provide more than a certificate, also aiming to provide the tools and mechanisms for supporting sustainable community and organic development where the livelihoods and status of farmers can be enhanced. It is important that the process of certification contributes to the construction of knowledge nets that are built by all the actors involved in the production and consumption of the organic product. The effective involvement of farmers, consultants and consumers on the elaboration and verification of the principles and rules not only leads to the generation of credibility of the organic product, but also to a permanent process of learning which develops capacities in the communities involved.

 

六、共創分享

關係人基於共同理念創造價值,分享權益,針對有機自然、友善環境耕作產品的生產過程的品質查證,並非集中在少數人的手中或一時的、外行的行為。所有參與查證過程的人都享有共同的責任和權益,以確保有機自然、友善環境耕作產品

  1. Horizontality

Horizontality means sharing of power. The verification of the organic quality of a product or process is not concentrated in the hands of few. All involved on the process of participatory certification have the same level of responsibility and capacity to establish the organic quality of a product or process.

 


 

參與式查證體系的主要特點(Key Features of a PGS )是:

一、構成有機產品的觀念,按照普遍的解譯,利益相關者通過一個民主和參與的過程所設想的規範。PGS規範應激發創造力,這是有機農民的一個特色,而不是管制它。

Norms conceived by the stakeholders through a democratic and participatory process, but always in accordance with the commonly understood sense of what constitutes an organic product. The norms should stimulate creativity, which is a characteristic of organic farmers, instead of inhibit it.

 

二、積極組織基層:積極組織所有利益相關者參與驗證,在社會上應該被廣為人知的。

Grassroots Organization: The Participatory Certification should be perceived as a result of a social dynamic, based on an active organization of all stakeholders.

 

三、因為PGS查證機制有參與和分享制度,所以成本較低,適合小農經濟,其實是積極鼓勵消費者去支援小農戶。

Is appropriate to smallholder agriculture, because the participatory nature and horizontal structure of the programs allows for more appropriate and less costly mechanisms of certification, and actually highlights and celebrates and encourages consumers to seek out smallholders.

 

四、提高小農戶的生活福利和促進有機農業發展的原則和價值觀。

Principles and values that enhance the livelihoods and well being of farming families and promote organic agriculture.

 

五、一般記錄管理系統和程序(ICS),可能是小農民無法達到的要求文件。他們更期待顯示他們的有機承諾和誠信,這些方法應由參與式查證體系所記錄。

Documented management systems and procedures – There may be minimal paperwork required of farmers but there will be ways in which they are expected to demonstrate their organic commitment and integrity, these ways should be documented by the PGS.

 

六、能夠刺激所有利益相關者來參與學習,以核實農民遵守既定規範的機制。

Mechanisms to verify farmer’s compliance to the established norms, which is able to stimulate participation, organization, and which allow a learning process for all the stakeholders.

 

七、透過包括現場考察,新聞通訊,訪問農戶及追溯資訊網站等支援農民生產有機產品和此驗證機制。

Mechanisms for supporting farmers to produce organic products and be certified as organic farmers, to include field advisors, newsletters, farm visits, web sites etc.

 

八、應該有一些基本文件,例如農民的承諾書,說明農戶同意遵守既定規範。

Should have a bottom-line document, for example a farmer’s pledge stating his/her agreement with the established norms.

 

九、產品要有PGS查證證書及張貼有機標章證明。

Seals or labels providing evidence of organic status.

 

十、有明確罰則定義,處理農民不符合標準及規定

Clear and previously defined consequences for farmers not complying with standards, actions recorded in a data base or made public in some way.

 

參考資料